Alternative Fuels Guidebook by Bechtold R.L.

By Bechtold R.L.

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The strain does not return to zero; rather, flow has occurred and the material is considered as a liquid. Moreover, if flow occurs even for a vanishingly small stress, the material is still considered as a liquid. Types of rheological behavior can be considered as: • • • • Inelastic solids: no strain recovery occurs. , adhesives). Ideally elastic: deformation followed by an instantaneous recovery. , polymer solutions, suspensions emulsions). 1 Law of Elasticity (Hooke’s Model) The stress (force per unit area) is proportional to the relative deformation (strain).

24) 21 22 2 Interparticle Interactions and Their Combination where α is the collision frequency, that is, the fraction of collisions that result in permanent aggregates. 2 Flocculation of Sterically Stabilized Dispersions Flocculation can be weak and reversible or strong and irreversible, depending on the magnitude of the attractive energy. Weak flocculation can occur when the thickness of the adsorbed layer becomes small, such that the attractive minimum (Gmin) in the energy–distance curve reaches several kT units for weak flocculation to occur.

5). 5). At this point, for convenience, the flocculation of electrostatically and sterically stabilized suspensions will be discussed separately. 1 Flocculation of Electrostatically Stabilized Suspensions As noted above, the condition for kinetic stability is Gmax > 25 kT, but when Gmax < 5 kT, flocculation occurs. Two types of flocculation kinetics may be distinguished: (i) fast flocculation with no energy barrier; and (ii) slow flocculation when an energy barrier exists. The kinetics of fast flocculation was treated by Smoluchowski [10], who considered the process to be represented by second-order kinetics and the process simply to be diffusion-controlled.

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