By Bartholomew Elias
The reaction of the U.S. federal govt to the occasions of September eleven, 2001 has mirrored the problem of extraordinary a stability among enforcing safety features to discourage terrorist assaults whereas whilst proscribing disruption to air trade. Airport and Aviation safety: U.S. coverage and approach within the Age of world Terrorism is a complete reference that examines the continual threats to aviation defense that led as much as the terrorist assaults of September eleventh, describes next terror plots opposed to aviation resources, and explores U.S. efforts to counter and mitigate those threats. Addressing the fatherland defense demanding situations dealing with the U.S. within the age of terrorism, this article explores: defense protocol ahead of 9-11 Precursors to September 11 The emerging hazard of Al Qaeda Tactical and congressional reaction to 11th of September, together with new laws the wider context of possibility evaluate Intelligence amassing Airport defense, together with passenger, luggage, and worker screening Airline in-flight security features Airport perimeter defense the specter of shoulder-fired missiles protection for GA (general aviation) operations and airports starting with a old backdrop describing the sunrise of the age of world terrorism within the Sixties and carrying on with up till the current time, the booklet demonstrates the large social and political context underlying contemporary adjustments within the aviation safeguard process as an immediate results of the 11th of September assaults. insurance examines ongoing threats and vulnerabilities to the aviation infrastructure, together with an exploration of ways previous terrorist incidents have come to form U.S. coverage and approach.
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Additional info for Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global Terrorism
S. air carrier flights operated overseas and international flights bound for the United States, particularly those with a large number of American and Israeli citizens on board. On August 29, 1969, a young Palestinian woman named Leila Khaled became the face of international terrorism when she and an accomplice from the PFLP hijacked a TWA flight from Rome, Italy to Athens, Greece with continuing service to Tel Aviv, Israel, diverting the airplane to Damascus, Syria. The hijackers blew up the nose section of the airplane, and they held two Israeli passengers for more than 40 days.
However, further raising federal ticket taxes, already set at 8%, was an unpopular option. The easiest mechanism for passing the security cost along to passengers was to make the screening and law enforcement functions the responsibility of the airlines and the airports, and have them recover the costs in the form of passenger head taxes and customer surcharges. President Nixon was clear in his resolve to veto any measure that would create a federal aviation police force to carry out these functions, thus compelling the House of Representatives to come up with an alternative to the Senate-passed bill.
These requirements, which became formally ratified as part of the Tokyo Convention of 1963, were considered a first step in addressing international cooperation in preventing and deterring hijackings, but it did not address protocols or arrangements for dealing with those that committed acts of aerial piracy. The work of ICAO that began in earnest in December 1968 set out to address issues of jurisdiction over and handling of individuals who carry out hijackings. This work culminated in the ratification of the Hague Convention of 1970 for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft on December 16, 1970, three months after the Dawson’s Field hijackings.