By Gordon C. Oates
A finished assurance of the foremost actual innovations that govern fuel turbine propulsion platforms. themes contain combustion expertise, engine/airplane functionality matching, inlets and inlet/engine integration, variable convergent/divergent nozzle aerodynamics, and extra.
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Extra info for Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design (Aiaa Education Series)
One problem arises because the flow direction must be changed in turbomachinery and flow changes direction only when a static pressure gradient is imposed perpendicular to the flow velocity. It can be shown that if this static pressure gradient is in the same direction as the local entropy 60 AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEMS gradient, the flow is unstable. The degree of instability is proportional to the product of the two gradients. Unstable flow encourages the interchange of momentum between the mainstream and the retarded flow near the flow boundaries; the value of du/dn becomes high, friction forces are also relatively high, and heat-transfer rates are enhanced.
Even though thermal conductivity and viscosity are involved in the mechanism of the losses, these properties do not determine the magnitude of the ideal losses. Adequate discussions of this subject can be found in any text on gasdynamics. Experiments using flat surfaces have shown that as long as the relationship between static pressure rise through a shock and the upstream Mach number is below that shown in Fig. 32, the observed losses are approximately equal to the ideal losses. 4 across the shock is a better guide when the surface is curved.
A visual contrast between flow around a good airfoil and that about a cylinder is shown in Figs. 34b. 34c is included in the series to show that a good airfoil can be misused. In Figs. 34c, the flow path markedly departs from some sections of the surface of the body. This condition is known as flow separation. Flow separation results from the sequence of events illustrated in Fig. 35 (these photographs are from Prandtl and Tietjens). 35a shows the distribution of flow immediately after it was almost instantly started from rest.