By Igor Agranovski
This self-contained instruction manual and prepared reference examines aerosol technological know-how and expertise extensive, offering an in depth perception into this innovative box. As such, it covers basic options, experimental equipment, and a large choice of functions, starting from aerosol filtration to organic aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.Written via a bunch of across the world well known specialists within the box, this is often a necessary source for chemists and engineers within the chemical and fabrics disciplines throughout a number of industries, in addition to perfect supplementary studying in graduate point classes.
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Extra resources for Aerosols: Science and Technology
Transport and industrial aerosol exhausts also often contain a considerable amount of aggregated particulate matter, not to mention such intense anthropogenic sources like oil and gas ﬁres. Specialists on the ‘‘Nuclear Winter’’ did not push this problem to one side either. Irregularly shaped particles have been studied for many years, but until fairly recently there was no unique and effective key idea for their characterization that would reﬂect the common origin of irregular aggregates or would allow the explanation of their physico-chemical behavior from a unique position.
15) where CD is the drag coefﬁcient and ρ is the density of the carrier gas. 16) When a particle of radius a moves in the carrier gas, the latter resists particle motion. 17) where ρ is the gas density and ν is the kinematic viscosity. 17) is the Stokes equation. In the transition regime, Eq. 21) where C(a) is the correction factor. 22) 1 2−σ and σ < 1 being a factor entering the slip boundary conditions. The Knudsen number is Kn = λ/a, with λ being the mean free path of the carrier gas molecules (λ = 65 nm for air at ambient conditions).
Smaller aggregated particles accompany the combustion process (aggregated carbon plus hydrocarbon particles or, better, soot). The chemical content of the ash ﬂakes is known: they consist of the mineral residue of the combustion process, resins, hydrocarbons, and the products of their chemical interaction with atmospheric air. Thunderstorms High-energy lightning processes are able to release carbon from carbon-containing molecules and thus to produce small (nanometer-sized) charged carbon particles (maybe in the fullerene form), which then aggregate, forming FAs and even aerogels.