Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents worthwhile details at the demanding situations confronted in the course of the transformation of our strength provide method to extra effective, renewable energies.

The quantity discusses the subject from a world point of view, offering the newest info on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.

It covers all points of this significant semiconductor know-how, reflecting at the large and dynamic advances which were made in this subject seeing that 1975, whilst the 1st booklet on sun cells-written via Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now well-known sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.

Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and swift medical improvement that results in the mandatory expense and value discounts in international business mass-production.

  • Written by way of prime, across the world identified specialists on his topic
  • Provides an in-depth review of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
  • Discusses the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our power offer process to extra effective, renewable energies
  • Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog

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Extra resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4,

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Therefore, numerical simulations became a reliable and indispensable tool for any crystal grower. Nevertheless, certain points have to be kept in mind when analyzing the results of numerical simulations: – In the simulation, the heat transfer is always idealized. , or it might be increased by altered material properties, enhanced emissivities, etc. – Today, the material data are known much better than some 20 years ago. Still, they are often idealized or not available as a function of the temperature.

6 A problem with structure losses is that quite often it is not clear why it happened. , have been brought in during the loading process or even earlier, during the harvesting and crushing of the polysilicon. In this case, backmelting would not help, of course. The particle-contaminated ingot has to be removed. – Necking was not successful or the seed crystal was recycled too often. – Growth conditions are not appropriate (too fast, temperature fluctuations too high) – Polysilicon was not pure enough, metallic impurities accumulated and destabilized the growth interface (generation of morphological instabilities).

Crucible and susceptor are covered by a graphite plate or a SiC-coated lid) or an open system results in lower carbon concentrations. , 2012). During the process, the argon flow is in the range of 10–40 l/min and the pressure inside the furnace chamber is in the range of 500–800 mbar. , 2011, 2012b). The argon generates a cold spot in the center of the melt surface and triggers a strong surface tension-driven flow (Marangoni flow), which improves melt mixing substantially. By nature, the VGF configuration shows stable density stratification and convective melt flow is driven by radial temperature gradients only.

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