Accelerators by L. Marton,C. Marton

By L. Marton,C. Marton

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Insrr. 22, 705 (1951). 23 R . J. Van de Graaff, Nucl. Insrr. M e t h . 8, 195 (1960). 24 The term Van de Graaff is now a trademark of the High Voltage Engineering Corporation and therefore the terminology electrostatic accelerator should be used as a general description of such accelerators. 25 H . Naylor, Nucl. Insrr. Merh. 63, 61 (1968). 28 This accelerator was developed by the National Electrostatics Corporation and is designed as a 25 MV accelerator. 10 1. 4. New electrostatic accelerator facility under construction, 1979.

The tandem accelerator has been developed to terminal voltages of 6 , 7 . 5 , 10, 12, and 15 MV. The higher voltage machines get extremely large. z2,25 The principle of the folded tandem is to place a 180"bending magnet in the terminal of a tandem and thereby use the same acceleration column for the two acceleration tubes. The negative ions travel up to the terminal, are bent 180", stripped positive, and accelerated back down the column in a second acceleration tube. This essentially reduces the size of the pressure vessel by a factor of two.

13 MV refers to a 13-MV tandem; 400 refers to the energy constant of a cyclotron; the Berkeley Super Hilac and the Darmstadt accelerators are linear accelerators). The Coulomb barriers of A + A and A + I/ are indicated. The curves labeled V , V , and V , V,, correspond to ion-beam energies for which the ion velocities are equal to the average K-shell and L-shell orbital velocities, respectively, for A + A collisions. - - 16 1. INTRODUCTION is perhaps the first particle accelerator. Sloan and Lawrence3' in 1931 built a linac consisting of 30 acceleration gaps each with 42 kV.

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